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Court Ruling of the D.C. Circuit Establishes That Employee Groups Can Become Labor Organizations

25 Feb

Update Applicable to:Effective date
All EmployersSee details below

What happened?

On January 12, 2024, the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit affirmed that the NLRB’s decision about T-Mobile´s program, T-Voice, qualified as a labor organization and it was unlawfully dominated and assisted by the company.

What are the details?

The Background

  • T-Mobile created a program in 2015 called T-Voice, whose end was to collect complaints about work from its customer service representatives.
  • The program aimed to address customer complaints and problems, called “pain points”, with the help of customer service representatives. The issues mainly revolved around frontline problems, including employment terms and conditions.
  • When a pain point was received, T-Voice representatives loaded it to a database that was monitored by managers, who then provided a response that was communicated back to the representative to take the appropriate measure, which also meant meetings between the managers and the representatives to discuss both the pain point process and particular cases.
  • T-Mobile occasionally announced to employees that it had implemented T-Voice proposals, expressly crediting T-Voice.

The Complaint

  • The Union Communications Workers of America (CWA), which has attempted to organize T-Mobile customer service reps for years, filed a charge with the NLRB in 2016 challenging T-Voice’s existence.
  • The Board’s General Counsel then filed a complaint alleging that T-Voice was a labor organization (i.e., like a union) under the Act, and that T-Mobile unlawfully dominated the labor organization. (29 U.S. Code § 158 – Unfair labor practices)


  • In 2017, a National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) administrative law judge ruled against T-Mobile holding that the company violated the provision of the National Labor Relations Act.
  • Then, in 2019, the NLRB overturned that decision, finding that the program was lawful and functioned as a “suggestion box” rather than a labor organization.
  • Finally, in 2022, NLRB reversed its decision and confirmed that T-Voice acted in a representative capacity, and so the company’s control of the program violated the law.

D.C. Circuit Court

  • The Court agreed with the board and confirmed that T-Voice was a labor organization, because according to the court’s interpretation, a “labor organization” includes informal entities, such as T-Voice.
  • Applying the four-factor analysis, it found that T-Voice:
  • (1) As an employee group, was “dealing with” the Company “where the group’s individual members make proposals to management while acting in a representative capacity, even if there is no additional indication that the full group endorses the individual member’s proposal.” It is not necessary for the group to adopt the proposals as a group to meet this definition.
  • (2) Dealt with the Company on terms and conditions of employment such as performance metrics, training, and equipment (covered by the Act), in addition to customer issues (not covered by the Act). The fact that there were far more customer issues than work issues was not relevant to the analysis.
  • (3) Proposals were considered and addressed by T-Mobile, who responded or reacted too many of them.
  • (4) T-Mobile described T-Voice as a representative organization for raising concerns about work conditions, and repeatedly acknowledged T-Voice in that context, there was an established pattern and practice of bilateral dealing

Business Considerations

  • Any employee group, including internal employee committees, must be carefully constructed to avoid the triggers of coverage of Unfair Labor Practices.
  • With this ruling, employers should address employee grievances on a case-by-case basis to avoid this type of violation.
  • In light of this case, review and determine if creating or keeping employees’ internal committees is worth the risk.


Source References

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